Ectopic Pregnancy

However, the muscle fibers are thin and poorly developed. Centronuclear myopathy also known as myotubular myopathy is a congenital disorder with 3 subtypes based on the age of onset of clinical disease. The early or infantile form presents as a floppy infant at birth. The juvenile form is the most common and presents in late infancy with slowly progressive muscle weakness. The adult form has a relatively benign course. The infantile form of centronuclear myopathy shown here is rare, with only 15 families described in the literature by Darnfors et al.

Repro 6- (PPT)

Accessed February 5th, Diagrams Phases Proliferative phase: Early proliferative endometrium Mid proliferative days 8 – Mid proliferative endometrium and Ki67 staining Late proliferative days 11 –

The stepchild of the 19th- and early 20th-century fetal pathology was the placenta and its relationship to fetal pathology; even now, we do not routinely give the .

High-grade, poorly differentiated tumors are the majority and are macroscopically indistinguishable from other epithelial tumors. This histologic variant is often associated with concentric rings of calcification known as psammoma bodies. Although no universal grading schema exists for ovarian serous carcinoma, a 2-tiered system low-grade vs high-grade has received increasing acceptance. Based on the observation of a high rate of tubal intraepithelial changes TICs in high-risk women undergoing RRSO, it has been hypothesized that many apparent ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinomas may be of fallopian tube origin.

This is consistent with the hypothesis that the fallopian tube is the source of a majority of these tumors. However, there is no definitive evidence that low-grade serous carcinomas always arise from LMP tumors, and whether the 2 entities represent a continuum of tumor progression remains unproven. Although there are ongoing trials specifically for low-grade ovarian cancers, at present, low-grade and high-grade invasive serous ovarian tumors are treated similarly.

Mucinous tumors histologically resemble endocervical epithelium. They tend to be the largest epithelial ovarian neoplasms, with a median diameter of 18 to 20 cm, but tend to remain confined to the ovaries. Pseudomyxoma peritonei, a clinical syndrome characterized by accumulation of a gelatinous ascites, may be present. Primary tumors tend to be large and unilateral.


The endometrium of the uterine body A consists of a single- layered prismatic surface epithelium, penetrating into the underlying connective tissue and thus forming tubular glands glandulae uterinae. The epithelium has 3 types of cells: The endometrium of the cervical canal B consists of a simple cylindrical surface epithelium with basal cells, cilia-carrying cells and secretory cells mucous- producing.

To date endometrium, should see surface endometrium, but date based on most advanced area Must biopsy uterine corpus above the level of the isthmus; must also biopsy functionalis as basalis layer does not respond to progesterone.

Abdominal — for ascites and masses Pelvic — VE and Pap smear Breast Cancer — most common cancer in women Changing age pattern — peak incidence now years. Asymptomatic women, with no increase in the risk of breast cancer Below 40 years — No need for mammogram, or any other imaging modality for screening years — Annual mammogram, years — 2 yearly mammogram, 65 years — Screening mammography may be less beneficial. If individual screening is performed, it should be at two- yearly intervals.

Fifth most common cancer in Singapore women Second most common gynaecological cancer in Singapore Know the high risk groups for development of cervical neoplasia Screening: Pap smear Sexually active — from the age of 25 years; discharged from screening at 65 years of age if the smear taken at 65 years is negative and the previous smears were negative Women who have never had sexual intercourse need not have Pap smear screening. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening of asymptomatic women at increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.

SearchWorks Catalog

The aim of this study was the evaluation of endometrial histopathologic findings from patients treated with tamoxifen Tx for breast cancer from two METHODS: Effect of tamoxifen on endometrial histology, hormone receptors, and cervical cytology: Represents hyperplastic response of normal endometrial tissue to unopposed estrogen; Patients with tamoxifen therapy are more prone to develop polyps; Late menopause, hormone replacement therapy and obesity increase risk of Microscopic histologic description.

For nearly 20 years, tamoxifen has been successfully used in the management of breast cancer.

The endometrial cavity is opened to reveal lush fronds of hyperplastic endometrium. Endometrial hyperplasia usually results with conditions of prolonged estrogen excess and can lead to metrorrhagia (uterine bleeding at irregular intervals), menorrhagia (excessive bleeding with menstrual periods), or menometrorrhagia.

GGOs prob dt fibrosis or alveolitis Architectural distortion Predom juxtapleural zonees of lower lungs Bronchi Bronchiectasis and bronchiolitis are present in the left lower lobe. Bilateral lower lobe bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickening, with left side worse than right. Effusions Tiny bilateral pleural effusions are present, with the left side larger than the right. This is likely secondary to recent intra-abdominal surgery.

Pleural Lesion Redemonstration of focal ovoid pleural lesion just posterior to the right lower lobe. It has attenuation of -1 Hounsfield units and measures 2. ARPD Bilateral multiple discontinuous foci of nodular pleural thickening, some of which exhibit intrinsic calcification. Bilateral calcified pleural plaques over the central tendinous portion of the hemidiaphragms consistent with asbestos-related pleural disease.

Lymph Nodes No axillary, hilar, mediastinal, or paratracheal lymph nodes meeting size criteria for lymphadenopathy. Mediastinum Heart size is normal. Great vessels are unremarkable. Calcified atherosclerosis is present in the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries. Focal calcifications are observed in the aortic valve annulus. The left anterior descending artery is mildly diffusely calcific consistent with atherosclerosis.

Undergraduate Programme

Evaluation of the Couple as a Unit Infertility should be regarded as a two-patient disorder. Male and female partners must be thoroughly evaluated, counseled, and included in the therapeutic decision-making processes. Exclusion of the male partner may lead to feelings of isolation in the female and to disinterest and lack of cooperation of the male partner.

A questionnaire is often helpful prior to the first visit and should include questions regarding prior conceptions, contraception, and coital frequency and techniques. This document serves as a basis for review and in-depth questioning and does not replace the history.

Endometrial Pathology – authorSTREAM Presentation. Sampling of the Endometrium: Sampling of the Endometrium Office biopsy procedures (Pipelle, Vabra aspirator, Karman cannula) agree with a D&C performed in 95% of the time Office biopsy has a 16% false negative rate when the lesion is a polyp or cancer Patients with persistent PMB after a negative office biopsy should have D&C.

Although the exact cause of endometriosis is not certain, possible explanations include: In retrograde menstruation, menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows back through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of out of the body. Our goal is to do good science that honours the voices and experience of women. The three tissue layers that make up the uterus are perimetrium, myometrium, and endometrium.

The outermost layer of the uterus is referred to as the perimetrium. The perimetrium is covered with a serosa layer. The most common symptom is pelvic pain. Endometriosis is more common in women who are having fertility issues, but it does not necessarily cause infertility. Treatment for endometriosis includes home remedies to relieve symptoms, medication, and surgery. Most often this is on the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, and tissue around the uterus and ovaries; however, in rare cases it may also occur in other parts of the body.

The main symptoms are pelvic pain and infertility.

Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMSG)

While it looks like a conventional microscope, the Morphologi G3 is classed as a particle characterization system that measures the size and shape of particles using static image analysis. The system brings together hardware and software in a single integrated package to provide an advanced level of automation and validation of results. You get an overview of a larger number of particles — and only imagination sets the limit for how analysis can be performed in order to understand the behavior of the powder.

With the new equipment you can analyze in various ways on the same sample: How many needles compared to flakes? Does the large particles have different morphology than the small particles?

Pathology Outlines – Disordered proliferative endometrium Pathology Outlines – Dating of endometrium OSPHENA® (OSPEMIFENE) OSPHENA® (OSPEMIFENE) 2 FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION WARNING: ENDOMETRIAL CANCER AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS Endometrial Cancer OSPHENA is an estrogen agonist/antagonist with tissue selective effects. DA: .

Both of these features can be deformed or disrupted by mechanical stressors. Causes of fetal demise differ with gestational age. In the first trimester, abnormal conceptus karyotype is the single most common cause of pregnancy loss. Fetal death due to aneuploidy e. Fetal death from sepsis is uncommon, especially in low-risk community hospital settings. Placentas from fetal deaths due to the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome demonstrate the classic pathology of multifocal placental infarcts and uteroplacental thrombosis.

Chronic inflammation not thrombosis is more common in the untreated early pregnancy losses of women subsequently diagnosed with antiphospholipid antibodies. Long-standing placental damage as in uteroplacental vascular insufficiency and severe chronic villitis may chronically limit fetal nutrients before fetal decompensation and death. The dividing line between antemortem and postmortem lesions is not always clear.

The differences among the placentas of a dead fetus, a damaged newborn, and a healthy newborn may only be the extent or severity of any one histologic lesion, or the presence of multiple lesions. Gross and histologic features of the placenta in fetal death Gross umbilical cord torsion is most common in midtrimester fetal death, when the normally large amniotic fluid volume allows passive fetal rotation after death. Torsion after death may occur first at the attachment of the umbilical cord to the fetus and may reflect effects of passive fetal movement rotating the flaccid cord after death.

Torsion at the insertion of cord to the chorionic plate and especially torsion in the midsection of the umbilical cord may both be clinically significant antemortem lesions Fig. Hemolysis of fetal erythrocytes causes discoloration of Wharton’s jelly soon after fetal death.

Topic 54: Endometrial Hyperplasia and Carcinoma